Reflective Journal Entry #4

What more do you hope to learn about EDR and why? Learning about Educational Design Research (EDR) has been outstanding. I am very pleased that I took a course in the EDR method since I had been questioning why each research method that we’ve learned about up to this point has been so restrictive in its application to data synthesis. Sure, there are mixed methods available, but the refinement of these methods are not part of the research. It some cases it would be advantageous to adjust the research methods during a project, something that EDR accentuates. What I would like to learn most about EDR is the Design-Based Research (DBR) component for the field of design and creative/commercial arts. While I am looking towards a doctorate in Educational Technology, I also have a terminal degree (MFA) in the arts. The rigor in research processes was not part of our program, but this area seems ripe for DBR studies, in particular with the creative process, technique, and public reception/interpretation of visual creativity.

Will you consider conducting an EDR for your dissertation? Why or why not? Under most circumstances, I would consider EDR for a dissertation, but there are three reasons why I am not going to in this Ed.D program. Before going into the two reasons in my case, I have to say that EDR is perfect for an Ed.D degree with the blend of theory and practice. The output of EDR solves a practical problem with a new theory and applies it to a field that needs improvement that is justified through literature review and experiential observation.

Specifically for my case, the three reasons that I am not conducting EDR is more practical:

  1. My committee is already formed, and we unofficially have a dissertation process outlined. I will be completing an article-based dissertation which includes: (a.) a literature review that will be published as a chapter in a handbook (Will be published in Handbook of Research on Learner Experience and Usability in Online Education); (b.) a case study on personalization of aesthetics in online classrooms (Target journal is Creativity Research Journal); and, (c.) a study into image use comparing the way disciplines use media and image types in ubiquitous textbooks, e-texts, and online classrooms (Target journal is Journal of Visual Literacy).
  2. For the study in this class, I feel I need to conduct the study (c.) in media use exploration before my EDR study to make it stronger and applicable. As much as I would like to use images within disciplines superficially, I’d like to conduct a major empirical study first.
  3. The amount of time that it could take to carry out a good, sound, and rigorous EDR study might expand my dissertation completion to multiple years instead of a year. In saying that, I’d like to use the proposal of this class in a grant. In my position, I do not need to carry out research activities, and this study seems like something useful to the California Community College system which uses Canvas in their universal course articulation system.  

What aspects of the Peer Review activities did you find most beneficial/challenging? When implemented correctly, peer reviews can provide insights that may never have otherwise been discovered. I found the review of others’ work engaging and insightful. I also found the reviews to be helpful. The parts of the review that helped the most was understanding where people weren’t clear about a topic or process, showing where my writing needed to be more detailed. The other part of the review I appreciate is the fresh eyes on grammar. It seems that no matter how many times I look at my work, I always find something grammatically incorrect.

The challenging aspect of a peer review and I’m sure most would say this, is that we do not have the expertise on the subject. I believe that it is better to have at least one person in our intended audience, who knows the subject, to review the work. I felt that my reviewers did not understand a couple of things that most people who would read the journal would find commonplace.

Either way, I think that part of the doctoral program is to experience new things. I also feel that a big part of the peer review should have been to make sure the process of EDR was adhered to. In our case, that the literature review contained information about the problem, the theories, and the processes that already exist to explain or solve the problem

Reflective Journal Entry #3

With regards to DBR, at this point, I feel like I am ready just to do it. Just make a study and do it. There isn’t a muddy point, in fact, there is inspiration from Dr. Sandoval [see video here] that resonates with this idea. I feel like I have identified a significant problem; there are gaps in the research; and, there aren’t many people with the ability to intervene in the area I’d like to study.

Relevant Problem: The problem of visual literacy has been identified by multiple researchers and studies that show students lack the ability to analyze and synthesize images, yet nobody in the field, except for in one study has tried to promote activities in the analysis and creation of digital imagery to convey meaning.

Gaps: There are plenty of guides on how to use images, create images, and even manipulate images, but there are few empirical studies on image making and the encoding process with regards to imagery related to learning outcomes. Beyond images, even Lev Manovich, a well-known media-theorist stated that aesthetics are virtually ignored in research.

Ability to intervene: Let’s face it, there aren’t many design professors teaching math courses, science courses, health courses, etc. Developing a critique and discussion practice like in the design studio could make a difference in the way students in other disciplines assess content related images.

I’m looking forward to the possibility of working with various colleagues in different disciplines to see how their students can evaluate and interpret content-based images.

Reflective Journal Entry #2

According to Tabak (2004) Design-based research (DBR) methods integrate design and empirical research with intent to develop models and interpretation of learning in natural learning environments. By contrast Joseph (2004) adds that design-based research enables researchers to thoroughly comprehend practical problems while simultaneously facilitating practitioners to grasp the overtones and significance of theoretical research. I would then ask as my muddy point, why aren’t more research studies set up in this manner? To understand the serendipitous nature of practice and the underpinnings of the theoretical constructs that guides such practice.

With understanding the framework of DBR, it has changed my approach to the literature review specifically for DBR studies. First, I’ve felt the specific need to identify the stakeholders and the settings of other studies, in other words circumstantial aspects of studies are very important.  Second, there is the need to understand past experiments and relevant theories. If it is possible to look at a collection of action research studies, case studies, or experimental designs then there could be overarching theories developed from this information that could inform the primary iteration of the research design. To summarize, the inferences of applied theory should be one of the goals of the literature review so that testing and remediating the theory can take place during the DBR study.


Joseph, D. (2004). The Practice of Design-Based Research: Uncovering the Interplay Between Design, Research, and the Real-World Context. Educational Psychologist, 39(4), 235–242

Tabak, I. (2004). Reconstructing context: Negotiating the tension Between Exogenous and endogenous educational design. Educational Psychologist, 39(4), 225–233

Reflective Journal Entry #1

While educational based research seems righteous in its merits, my muddy point is: At what point do we stop the process of iterations? Why are three iterations recommended?

Educational Design research is a type of research that uses iterations in the research process to solve complex theoretical problems within the practice of education. Because of its complexities and many of the problems in education are wicked problems, design-based research may never fully solve the educational issue that is studied, but this design will offer a framework, record of examination, and contribute new knowledge surrounding the problem. This will happen by what McKenney and Reeves (2012) list as maturing educational interventions and further theoretical understandings that are “…effective, sustainable, and scalable” (Fishman et al., 2013, p.136)  Reeves (2000) suggested that traditional empirical research was such that it aimed to develop clear principles for implementation. Design research, on the other hand, requires a practical framing that learning theory is simultaneously shaped by researchers and practitioners, aiming to solve identifiable problems in practice while rationalizing design principles that allude to future decisions. This concept map shows the balancing act of the two paradigms.

design-based research concept map
design-based research concept map by Jason Bader – EdTech672

For my concept map, I wanted to show a recycled process that balances out the practicality and theory of the EDR process. I used certain buzzwords from specific authors.

  • Fishman et al. (2013) Effective, Sustainable, and Scalable.
  • McKenney and Reeves (2012) Analysis, Design, Evaluation – Exploration, Construction, Reflection  [ Maturing intervention – Theoretical Understanding]
  • Reeves (2000), Analysis – literature, stakeholders, and context; Design – Frameworks, Lenses, Theories; Evaluation – Practical, Scientific, Formative, Summative, Interventions.

In the map, I split the theory on the left and color coded with pink while placing the practice on the right and color coding with blue. The main elements of the process of the design were positioned in the middle, still color coded and tied between the “design” aspect of the research process which was purpose and iterations. The iterations would inform the recycling and development of the research while the purpose describes the sustainability and scalability of the research.  


Fishman, B. J., Penuel, W. R., Allen, A. R., Cheng, B. H., & Sabelli, N. (2013). Design-based implementation research: An emerging model for transforming the relationship of research and practice. National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook, 112(2), 136-156. Retrieved from

McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2012). Conducting educational design research. London: Routledge.

Reeves, Thomas C. (2000). Enhancing the Worth of Instructional Technology Research through Design Experiments and Other Development Research Strategies. Paper presented on April 27, 2000 at Session 41.29, International Perspectives on Instructional Technology Research for the 21st Century, a Symposium sponsored by SIG/Instructional Technology at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New Orleans: LA. Retrieved from


Teaching Technique: Worked Example

Project: Creating a digital slideshow in Adobe InDesign

Purpose: This project will allow you to piece together various movie posters that you consider to be “good” designs. Search to find various movies and put together ten of the best you can find. You will be putting them in a single PDF using Adobe InDesign to present to the class. You should point out one strength in each of the posters you select. The strengths can come from conceptual, compositional, technical, or aesthetical viewpoints. Make sure you emphasize what viewpoint the strength is coming from. I would encourage that this is written in notes to yourself so you can keep pace with your presentation.

Process: Watch the worked example in the following Interactive PDF(download) to learn how to use InDesign to make your PDF. This file MUST be downloaded to your computer and watched through Adobe Acrobat (the reader version is fine if you did not rent the Adobe Suite). If you do not use Acrobat to view the file, the interactive elements will not work. The file can also be found on YouTube or watched here:

0:00 – Intro
0:55 – Collecting files
2:07 – Setting up the file
4:05 – Setting up master pages
6:15 – Importing images
8:10 – Resizing images
9:33 – Aligning images using guides
10:57 – Export PDF
12:50 – Submit PDF

Submission: Submit your PDF file to the discussion board so that other students can access your file as well.

Design Notes: The entire process of the worked example was created in Camtasia. Once the file was exported, it was brought into Adobe InDesign to find the bookmark points in the video creating a segmented or chunked instruction.  For accessibility, the video was also placed on YouTube for Closed Captioning. Youtube also compresses the video which isn’t optimal for video quality, but usable.  Once I formed a summative evaluation of a course and low-resolution videos were the main complaint; therefore, it is better to have a method of allowing the student to access high-resolution videos.

Having a downloadable interactive PDF with close to full resolution video does three things:

  1. It creates a high-quality video.
  2. It allows for interactive/segmented instruction.
  3. It embeds the video so that the video alone cannot be redistributed.

I thought that another way that might be good with segmented instruction might be to put a text bar on the top of each lesson which would identify the process being described, but since most users don’t manually fast forward like the would with TIVO or VHS, it isn’t necessary anymore with the ability to embed hyperlinks.

Teaching Concept – Coherence Analysis

This is a paper for a graduate class that addresses specific questions requested by the instructor which revolve around the topic of the coherence principle. The paper examines research-based studies supporting the coherence principle as well as my own reflective experiences. The paper concludes that the coherence principle is a sound philosophy to follow for most educators but may be problematic in creating a sterile learning environment. The list of questions that needed to be addressed within this paper can be found in appendix A.

Keywords: coherence principle, multimedia, design theory, e-learning, modality, redundancy, PowerPoint lectures

Download the PDF here.

Teaching Technique – Podcast

This is a podcast series that is meant to analyze and remark on various found design solution. The analysis investigates three parts of the visual: a. the purpose of the work; b. the composition of the design; and, c. the aesthetic style of the finished product. In this VideoCast, we look at a billboard design for a cosmetic surgery practice and the 2003 revision of the United Parcel Service logo.

The YouTube VideoCast can be found here.

A transcription of the VideoCast can be found here.

The Mp4 file of the VideoCast can be found here.

The video was made using Adobe After Effects for the composite and Apple Quicktime for the recording of the voice.

Application Experiment – Haiku Deck

This is a haiku deck created to give a description of some of their functional and aesthetic choices that need to be considered when using fonts in media. Many applications are making it easy for educators to generate their own presentations and ones like Powerpoint allow for quite a bit of freedom in choosing typefaces and assigning font properties. This is a VERY CONDENSED start to a discussion on fonts and their uses.

Haiku Deck on Fonts

Teaching Technique – Static Multimedia Instruction

This exercise is to learn a few of the very basic actions within Adobe Illustrator. This program is for the creation of vector graphics and standard in the design industry for design layout and compositions e.g. movie posters, beverage labels, packaging labels, logos etc.

-Create an Illustrator file containing a basic shape
-Design the properties of the shape
-Compose the position of the shape
-Generate a file that can be read by earlier versions of Adobe Illustrator

Project #1 – Static Multimedia Instruction

Design Notes:
This project was created using the following technology:
1. Grab (Mac) was used to capture the screen using the “timed capture” option
2. Photoshop’s automate tool was used to crop and save all eleven images instantaneously
3. A freeware clipart cursor graphic was downloaded since it did not show up in the screen capture
4. Photoshop was used to highlight elements in the screens where the viewer needs to find the tool that they are supposed to use for that step.
5. Indesign was used to create a document that uses CARP fundamentals.
6. Indesign was used to generate hyperlinks within each image in case the viewer wanted to see a larger version for more detail
7. A PDF was exported.

Multimedia Principle
Images were used along with text directions. The images show the learner where in the program they can find the tools to accomplish the specific step. The text highlights the keywords or commands they need to use to accomplish that specific step.

Contiguity Principle
Each step was highlighted with a tab that separates it from the other using repetitive similar elements (like font and color). The image and text instructions are juxtaposed (proximity) and aligned. Within the text, contrast is used to show the important commands that are needed in each step.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.